Category Archives: Technology

Enterprise Technologies

Cloud Computing History

Episode 98

We talked about cloud computing quite a lot here in the past. We started with an introduction in Episode 57 and then focused particularly on AWS cloud, starting from Episode 64  and following with a series of 13 Episodes up to a conclusion with tips on how to pass some certifications in Episode 83. Today we will look back a bit and explore milestones in the IT industry that led to the emergence of cloud computing platforms as we know it today.


Image by Thomas Chamberlain-Keen

We will look at many factors and concepts that have played a crucial role in disrupting the industry across last six decades, including time-sharing mainframes, the birth of the Internet, virtual machines, containers, Software as a Service, Platform as a Service, Infrastructure as a Service, Read the rest of this entry »

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Posted by on March 22, 2020 in Cloud, Technology



Web API Design Part Eleven: Miscellaneous

Episode 97

Our API design journey was long and adventurous, but we are getting to the end of it. This is the final installment of the series and will include all the little things I had difficulty classifying to any previous chapters, or that I have forgotten about earlier as well as some closing thoughts. If you don’t know how to name a chapter or a presentation slide with a random list of tips – you can always slip away with “miscellaneous”.


Image by Grosnez

It took a bit longer than usual, I know. Last few months I had a big project called “let’s pass another cloud certificate” and I decided to focus on that. Before we continue, with our final piece of API design thoughts and ideas, let’s briefly recap what we did up to this point.

The Road So Far

Formally, it all started ‎on Tuesday, ‎22 ‎August  ‎2017, ‏‎10:57:40 AM, according to Google Drive doc creation timestamp. I’ve created the first doc with notes, preparing to do a talk on web API design on the occasion of opening a new office of my company. I repeated this talk several times later and meanwhile decided to reforge it into a series of articles. Originally it was supposed to be three of them, but as you can see, I’m not the best at estimations. The first article was Read the rest of this entry »

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Posted by on June 16, 2019 in API, Technology



Web API Design Part Ten: Management

Episode 96

It’s been a while, but I’m back with the next installment of API design series. Today we will step away a bit from technicalities and jump into the business perspective. After all, API is a product and needs to be treated as such. As we discussed one year ago in the first chapter of our journey, API is for developers as a graphical user interface is to regular software users. It’s a gateway to business value. And there are quite a lot of issues going around the product to think about and to be aware of.


Image by Cosmic Net Studios

API management is a process of creating, publishing, enforcing usage policies, taking care of subscribers, analyzing the traffic and monetizing our product. API is as successful as developers who build upon it. Much of API management effort is directed towards empowering developers that use the API and simplify their work as much as possible. Some aspects of API management are more technical than others and with the rise of API management platforms this tendency increases, as more features are delegated to the platform. We will focus on Read the rest of this entry »

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Posted by on December 20, 2018 in API, Technology


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Web API Design Part Nine: Versioning

Episode 95

Today’s episode is sponsored by the rain in Amsterdam and werewolves. It’s my second trip here within last two weeks with the initial goal of attending AWS trainings and some sightseeing, but AWS canceled one of these a day after my company bought non-refundable plane tickets and booked the hotel, so… more emphasis on sightseeing, or rather sitting in the coffee shop waiting for better weather. Why werewolves? Well, because in this installment of our long-running series on API design, we will talk about versioning and I find the werewolf a decent allegory to represent breaking (or tearing) changes in API that leads to a dilemma: which versioning strategy should be employed. And because I like fantasy themes for my articles.


Image by Aleksandr Nikonov

There are many approaches to versioning with pros and cons and it’s difficult to definitively choose one or the other. We will explore possibilities of how to version and,  where to actually put the version information, including URI, parameters, content negotiation, custom headers, or… nowhere at all. We are going to talk about breaking and non-breaking changes and various considerations and hints relevant to helping clients of your API deal with the evolution of our system in a bearable way.


Before we start to multiply API version, we should consider whether we really need it. Backward compatible, or non-breaking changes should not Read the rest of this entry »


Posted by on September 30, 2018 in API, Technology


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Join JDD 2018

Episode 94

A little break from API design series, to share some news. I was again invited to be a media partner of JDD – a Java conference that will take place at Nowohuckie Centrum Kultury in Cracow, on October 8-9th. As a result, I will have for all of you not only a 15% discount code but also one entirely free invite. If you are curious about last year’s details, have a look at what was going on day one and day two.


What new at JDD this year?

One of the JDD 2018 goals is consistent and rich in content program, which was prepared by CFP ideas and JDD Program Committee suggestions. The schedule includes  Spring, Serverless, Reactive Streams, GraphQL, REST API, Reactive Programming and Java, Java 8, Java 9 i Java 10, of course! “Meat and practice” – live coding, case studies – this is what you can expect from JDD this year. Furthermore Read the rest of this entry »

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Posted by on September 5, 2018 in Events, News, Technology


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Web API Design Part Eight: HATEOAS

Episode 93

Temperatures around are deeply disturbing when I’m writing this post, so I decided to banish myself to a place with air conditioning and cold brew coffee. Time from the last post is a bit longer than expected, but as an excuse, I wrote (almost) two different articles meanwhile on the subject of microservices, that will be hosted on other blogs. I will link them here later. Digression aside, today we are going to talk about Hypermedia as the Engine of Application State, also known under a lovely acronym HATEOAS.


The previous article, about security, has a brief reference to a soundtrack of a classic game Diablo II, and so has the art I used on the slide about HATEOAS on my API design presentation. Remember the boss of act III, Mephisto? Apparently, any serious demon needs an appropriate title, in that case, it was: Lord of Hate. Hate, HATEOAS, you know, it worked well together. Okay, I’m over with digressions, I promise. Let’s get down to Dungeons of Hate… I meant, let’s get down to business.

The Overlord

I meant: The overview… HATEOAS is a part of REST architectural style. It might be considered a high-level part according to Richardson maturity model, as Read the rest of this entry »


Posted by on August 8, 2018 in API, Technology


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Web API Design Part Seven: Security

Episode 92

Short digression first. I’m currently sitting in a lovely and almost on-time train from Wrocław to Kraków in order to get to Devoxx PL conference and rant again about, guess what, web API. I was assessing which part of the design should I write about today, put on the headphones and kicked my usual collection of writing music mainly composed of video games soundtracks. The first track that pops up randomly is “Diablo II – The Wilderness”. It’s dangerous out there, I thought, API security it is then.

Welcome to the next chapter of our journey through the vast realms of web API. We have wandered far away from home now, and the wilderness is getting scary and dangerous. Let’s see what we can do to stay safe here.


It’s not the first security focused article here, but probably the most technology agnostic. In episode 63 we tackled some hands-on examples of security aspects in Spring framework. In episode 77 we looked at details of AWS IAM – Identity and Access Management while following in episode 78 with other AWS services related to security.

Today we will talk about authentication and authorization ways in web APIs, keys, JWT, OAuth, TSL, throttling, threats and attacks and explore some general tips on Read the rest of this entry »

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Posted by on June 27, 2018 in API, Technology


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Web API Design Part Six: Cache

Episode 91

In the previous episode of this series, we talked about communicating response status through HTTP codes and error objects with several fields describing what the hell happened and how to deal with it. It was the last part of the core business aspects of web APIs, those that are the most visible to our clients and connected with a product domain. Today we will start a second big part of our journey, supporting aspects – things that are more generic, technical, a bit in the background and not always noticeable from a business perspective, but nonetheless important. First topic here will be cache.


As we might remember from an episode about the origins of REST, cacheability is one of six fundamentals of REST. The idea is that every response from the server must contain Read the rest of this entry »

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Posted by on May 20, 2018 in API, Technology


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Web API Design Part Five: Status and Error Handling

Episode 90

In the previous installment of the web API design series we looked into ways of implementing various operations on object collections: filtering, searching, sorting and pagination. We also tackled ways to parametrize HTTP requests in order to employ mentioned operations.


After an article focused on requests, let’s work on our responses. We will talk about HTTP codes, which of them are actually worth using and how to use them. Before delving into specific codes, let’s talk about how we should inform our API consumer about problems.

There is a dragon in the server room

The dragon set the server on fire and we have troubles with processing your request, please try again late. Sometimes bad things happen. Read the rest of this entry »


Posted by on April 22, 2018 in API, Technology


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Web API Design Part Four: Collections

Episode 89

In the previous episode we talked about core concepts of web API designs, including resources and representations, naming, relations, functions and sanity checks. We looked at what should be the expected behavior of HTTP methods regarding operations on single objects and collections.


Today we will focus expand on the topic of collections, namely: filtering, sorting and pagination. While talking about filtering collections, we will look at filtering fields in particular single objects. In order to do that Read the rest of this entry »

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Posted by on March 28, 2018 in API, Technology


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